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Africa Resilience Forum 2021: Facing the ‘hydra-head challenges of Covid-19, conflict and climate’ – The Maravi Post

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The fourth edition of the Africa Resilience Forum opened on Tuesday, as the continent’s most vulnerable communities confront the triple challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, conflict and climate change.

An estimated 39 million Africans could slip into extreme poverty this year, as a result of the pandemic. At the same time, countries are facing higher fiscal costs, reducing capacity for the critical investments required to deliver on ambitions such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

The Africa Resilience Forum is a flagship African Development Bank event which brings together key stakeholders across government, civil society, the private sector, and international partners, to reflect on the continent’s conflict prevention, peace, and state-building initiatives.

Amadou Hott, Senegal’s Minister of the Economy, Planning and Cooperation, shared some of the successes from his country that could prove useful in the current crisis. Speaking on behalf of President Macky Sall, Hott said Senegal had adopted a legal framework that provides for flexible and secure public-private partnerships. He said the crisis “reminds us of the need to reorganize our priorities, to strengthen the social protection of our populations and to establish a more endogenous development.”

African Development Bank President Akinwumi A Adesina highlighted the Bank’s work in climate finance and landmark green projects, including the $20 billion Desert to Power solar energy program, which will provide clean energy to up to 250 million people across 11 countries in the Sahel region.

“Across Africa, rising expenditures on defence and security, increasingly displace development financing on essential services such as education, health, water, sanitation, and affordable housing…This compromises long-term resilience needed to bounce back better,” Adesina said. “The hydra-headed challenges of this pandemic, insecurity, and climate change, continue to impact young men, women, and children the most.” Going forward, Adesina said the Bank would work closely with regional member countries on security-indexed bonds to address the root causes of insecurity by protecting investments and livelihoods.

Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the African Union Commission, said the continent’s wealth of natural resources and historic solidarity could “lay the groundwork for resilience.” He added: “The Covid pandemic made it possible to identify vulnerabilities and required a new vision for reform.”

Day one featured two further sessions: one on the competing needs of development and security, especially in the prevailing environment of heightened fiscal constraints, while the second focused on climate adaptation, an emerging antidote to the destructive impact of extreme weather.

The security panel featured Abebe Aemro Selassie, Director of the International Monetary Fund’s Africa Department, Dr. Jean-Claude Kassi Brou, President of the Commission of the Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS), and Adriano Afonso Maleiane, Mozambique’s Minister of Economy and Finance.

Minister Maleiane, whose country has been hit by both climate and security challenges, described the impact of the latter alone: “Today, spending on security is equal to investment. Without security (there is) no investment, no growth, nothing.”

The next two days of the Africa Resilience Forum will centre on action around investing in women, youth employment, closing the digital divide, and boosting manufacturing in transition states. This year, the Forum will also serve as a platform to learn about the Bank’s new strategy for addressing fragility and building resilience in Africa (2022-2026).

Learn more here about the 2021 Africa Resilience Forum.

Source African Development Bank Group

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Hydroponics and Vertical Farming in Morocco and the World – The Maravi Post

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By Carter and Henry Prillaman

A vision for the future of agriculture and possible implementation in Marrakech, Morocco

Our agriculture system as we know it needs to change. We see an enormous amount of waste in current practices through using up too much water, using too many pesticides that hurt the neighboring environment as well as waste of produce through imperfection or being pest ridden. This, combined with flagging and in some cases stagnant yield increases in soil systems across the world will soon require sweeping and rapid changes in growing methods. As our population continues to grow, food production will grow and our methods of growing should change as well.

There are methods available to us today to not only change the way we grow produce for the better, but also increase yields in a smaller space. Vertical farming through hydroponics or aeroponics gives us the opportunity to grow larger amounts of produce in seemingly unavailable spaces. Rooftops, indoors, in older warehouses—you can grow plants and stack them on top of each other to farm a consistent crop that produces year-round and quickly, uses less water and energy, is more pest resistant, and can help alleviate some of the logistical trouble of transporting produce to and from farms to cities everywhere.

Cherry tomatoes being grown vertically and hydroponically in a greenhouse in Morocco.
Hydroponics and aeroponics are increasingly popular cultivation methods among both commercial growers and research scientists. They confer several advantages with the foremost of these being their water use efficiency, with some studies suggesting up to 70% and 95% less water usage for hydroponics and aeroponics, respectively. In one 2015 study conducted in Arizona, an extremely dry state in the United States, it was found that hydroponically grown lettuce required 10 times less water as a system than soil-based lettuce crops. This is particularly important based on the similarities between the climates of Arizona and Marrakech. While this study found that energy usage of a hydroponic farm was significantly higher than soil-based farms, this could be nearly completely offset by reducing the amount of supplemental lighting used in favor of currently available solar power technologies.

Another advantage of greenhouse hydroponic production is season-independence, where a grower would be able to produce several harvests year-round by shielding the crops from seasonal changes through the use of LED lighting and heating and cooling of the greenhouse space. By utilizing existing ideas for a closed-loop hydroponic system, which can be easily constructed in any area of the world, it is possible to reuse nearly all water and nutrients that are not uptaken and transpired by plants. One study conducted in Indonesia suggested the use of such a system to more actively regulate water usage and increase cost-efficiency of hydroponic production in a Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) hydroponic system. Water efficiency and full-year production and harvest are attractive, and depending on the design of the greenhouse, pest resistance can be built in as well through engineering of the facility to not be conducive to insect or microbial population accumulation.

While reusing nutrients and water can be economically and environmentally attractive (in reducing agricultural runoff, one of the main sources of pollution in the world), care must be taken to ensure consistent yield through several cycles of harvest. If not properly treated, reused nutrient solution can accumulate several phytotoxic (plant-harming) organic acids that are released from the roots of any plant in order to regulate the microbial population of its roots. Studies have shown that the use of activated charcoal can help to mitigate some of the damaging effects of these chemicals, though further research is needed to determine a commercially viable solution.

Another promising area of research in hydroponics and aeroponics is a possible disease resistance conferred by the physical stress of constant flow or aerosolization. One recent study found that in aeroponic systems, the microbial population of the roots remained almost entirely distinct from the population of the nutrient solution reservoir, suggesting very little, if any, microbial population overlap. Another recent study attempted to use a chemical intervention solution to mitigate possible E. coli contamination of lettuce crops grown in NFT systems. Though the chemical intervention was unsuccessful, a notable result was the complete lack of colonization of root tissue and no uptake of harmful bacteria into the vegetative tissues of any of the tested crops. Though these studies are recent, they suggest that hydroponics may be much more pathogen resistant than previously thought, leading to considerably lower contamination risk for hydroponic growers, and safer food for consumers.

The benefits of hydroponic and aeroponic farming are many, and emerging technologies are making the ease of access to such systems considerably lower, paving the way for a future generation of amateur and commercial growers to begin to farm in any place, at any time.

Africa has experienced wonderful agricultural and economic growth in some regions but with current methods this is not sustainable. From the “Agricultural Transformation for Sustainable and Resilient Food Systems – United States Agency for International Development (USAID)” 2021 pre-summit, there was a discussion regarding the need for change in the direction of agriculture in the future. There is a need for an increase in productivity in the land already used for agriculture, which will then lead to greater and more sustainable economic growth. Increasing productivity through new agricultural technologies would have lasting impacts on farmers, communities, and societies everywhere. From the World Bank report, “Harvesting Prosperity: Technology and Productivity Growth in Agriculture,” there is particular weight given to innovation and the need to support this innovation through connection to markets. We believe that using new hydroponic and aeroponic technology as well as vertical farming can increase productivity, foster a closer connection for city residents to their food production, and experience continued growth in the agricultural sector.

A vertical aeroponic farm in Kenya.

Across the world, we are conducting unsustainable practices and use of land for agricultural growing. The High Atlas Foundation, a foundation for the lasting and prosperous development of Morocco, has been working to address this problem. They have been following responsible procedures and using new technology to increase efficiency through primarily women and youth led campaigns. In addition, they have been working to address the problem of climate change through monitoring trees they have planted for carbon offsets. There is a necessity in not only Africa but across the world to accept and utilize new technology to help increase the productivity of the land we have, while also saving our planet. The advent of hydroponics, aeroponics, and vertical farming is a great method to try and combat the pressing issue of how we are going to grow plants when there is little water and little surface area. This gives the possibility for many methods of urban farming, including vertical and hydroponics in rooftops and many unused areas that could be used for growing.
 
We only have one world, so being good stewards and living sustainable lives is imperative. Expanding use of the technology of hydroponics and vertical farming can allow the small grower to have much stronger financial gain while also helping alleviate the burden agriculture places on the planet. There is only so much space in the world, but we can always grow up.
 
Carter Prillaman is a current junior majoring in biology at The College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia. Henry Prillaman is a current senior majoring in economics at The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.

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COL vs ECU Live Score Dream11 Prediction Lineup Kick-Off World Cup Qualifiers Colombia vs Ecuador

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World Cup Qualifiers is coming with back-to-back matches of the league and fans are going more crazy about the match. They have been watching some amazing matches since the league came into the limelight and now, another match is again ready for the fans who have been watching the matches.

COL vs ECU Live Score

There are lots of matches still left to be taken place in the ground. Well, tonight, team Colombia (COL) and team Ecuador (ECU) will face off each other on the football ground once again and fans are going more crazy for the match because of the team performance and their players.

Well, the fans are going much excited for the match and it is going to be more exciting when many more matches of the league will take place. Let us tell you that there are lots of matches is about to happen and it will be interesting to watch all the matches.

Now, we are going to discuss the match in the given below paragraph and also, we will share some updated information such as its time, date, venue, league, and many more things of the match. Keep scrolling and check out every necessary information of the match including its prediction as well.

COL vs ECU: Match Details

  • Team Names:- Colombia (COL) vs Ecuador (ECU)
  • League:- World Cup Qualifiers 2021-22
  • Venue:- Estadio Metropolitano Roberto Melendez, Colombia
  • Date:- Friday, October 15, 2021
  • Time:- 02:30 AM IST

COL vs ECU: Team Squad

Colombia (COL):- Santos Borré, Luis Sinisterra, Aldair Quintana, Camilo Vargas, Luis Díaz, Jefferson Lerma, Stefan Medina, Carlos Cuesta, Johan Mojica, John Lucumi, Roger Martínez, Yerson Candelo, Wilmar Barrios, Mateus Uribe, Yerry Mina, Éder Balanta, Davinson Sánchez, Radamel Falcao, Gustavo Cuéllar, Duván Zapata, Juan Quintero, William Tesillo, David Ospina, Daniel Muñoz, and Juan Cuadrado,

Ecuador (ECU):- Michael Estrada, Johan Padilla, Christian Noboa, Angel Mena, Jhegson Mendez, Renato Ibarra, Jhojan Julio, Romario Ibarra, Carlos Gruezo, Franklin Guerra, Jordy Alcivar, Jose Cifuentes, Diego Palacios, Alan Franco, Gonzalo Plata, Moises Caicedo, Leonardo Campana, Pervis Estupinan, Jose Carabali, Felix Torres, Alexander Dominguez, Pedro Ortiz, Mario Pineida, Angelo Preciado, Enner Valencia, Erick Ferigra, Robert Arboleda, Pedro Perlaza, Junior Sornoza, and Xavier Arreaga.

COL vs ECU: Lineups Player

Colombia (COL):- Mateus Uribe, Luis Diaz, Duvan Zapata, Radamel Falcao, Yerry Mina, Davinson Sanchez, David Ospina, Stefan Medina, Johan Mojica, Juan Fernando Quintero, and Wilmar Barrios.

Ecuador (ECU):- Moises Caicedo, Pervis Estupinan, Joao Joshimar Rojas, Gonzalo Plata, Enner Valencia, Angelo Preciado, Alexander Dominguez, Bryan Angulo, and Robert Arboleda, Fernando Leon, and Piero Hincapie.

COL vs ECU: Match Prediction

Now, the watchers are excited to watch this amazing match of the league and it will be amazing to watch this match on the football ground. You can also watch the live streaming of the match online. Team ECU is standing on the 3rd position with 5 winnings match out of 11 matches.

On the other side, team COL is standing in the 5th position with 3 matches out of 11 matches. According to the sources, team ECU has more chances to win this match.



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Step up, urges WHO as figures reveal 1 in 4 adults don’t exercise enough  – The Maravi Post

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Where opportunities do exist, older adults or people with disabilities may simply not have access to them.  

To improve this situation, the World Health Organization (WHO) is calling for better and fairer opportunities for physical activity to improve overall health.  

In a new advocacy brief, Fair Play: Building a strong physical activity system for more active people, the agency asks decision-makers across the health, sport, education and transport sectors, to promote the benefits more. 

For WHO Deputy Director-General, Zsuzsanna Jakab, “there is an urgent need to provide people with better opportunities to live active healthy lives.” 

“Today, the possibility for people to take part in physical activity is uneven and unfair. This inequity has only gotten worse during the COVID-19 pandemic,” Ms. Jakab said.  

Children doing physical exercises in a school gym in Uzbekistan, among them a child affected by down syndrome.

Out of breath 

WHO statistics reveal that one in four adults, and four out of five adolescents, do not currently get enough physical activity.  

Women are less active than men, with more than an eight per cent difference at the global level (32 per cent men, just 23 per cent for women). 

High income countries are home to more inactive people (37 per cent), compared with middle income (26 per cent) and low-income countries (16 per cent). 

WHO guidelines recommend adults should do at least 150 to 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic activity per week. Children and adolescents should do an average of 60 minutes per day. 

Solutions 

The Fair Play brief was released during WHO’s final webinar in a series convened to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on sport and physical activity. 

The brief highlights the main challenges and opportunities and calls for all partners to strengthen collaborations and support countries to scale up actions in this area. 

Solutions that work include sustained community campaigns, inclusive programmes in local communities, and safer environments that support more walking and cycling, for everyone. 

The Head of the Physical Activity Unit at WHO, Fiona Bull, said that the brief “provides clear messages to all who work, to create a more active society”.  

‘Common vision’ 

“WHO is calling for industries, civil society and governments, as well as UN agencies, to build a common vision for creating more active societies through sport, walking, cycling and playing”, she explained. 

The agency points out three key actions: stronger partnerships across sectors; stronger governance structures and regulations; and broader, deeper and innovative financing mechanisms.  

The advocacy brief responds to UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres’ call for sport and physical activity to broaden its contribution to meet the Sustainable Development Goals. 

The agency also encourages countries to implement the policy actions outlined in the WHO Global action plan on physical activity 2018-2030 to achieve the target of an increase in physical activity by 15% by 2030.

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